1. Essence | 2.
Frameworks | 3. Skills | 4.
Process ideas | 5. Resources
Frameworks to keep in mind
facilitating groups it is often useful to have in the back of one’s
mind frameworks that might help make sense of what is happening.
frameworks should not dominate the process but may help make sense
of what is happening and the issues that emerge.
useful frameworks are:
Individuals, groups and organisations
styles and processes
People have different
personal styles and preferences. Understanding these styles and preferences
can be helpful for:
- developing processes
which allow everyone to contribute
interactions between participants
ones own strengths and weaknesses as a facilitator.
to understanding personal styles and preferences is Myers Briggs. See:
differing Understanding Personality Type, Isabel
Briggs Myers with Peter B Myers 1980, Davies-Black Publishing 1995
Talk at Work, How the 16 Personality types determine your
success on the job, Kroeger, O & Thuesen, JM. Tilden Press,
Dell Publishing, New York, 1993.
Many meetings and
workshops which require a facilitator are working with change. Understanding the processes that people move through when working though
change can help one:
- Understand the
processes at work for individuals and groups
- Design more appropriate
Change at Work. Leading People through Organisational Transitions, Scott,
Cynthia D & Jaffe, Dennis T ,1995, Crisp Publications
(A Fifty Minute Manager Series Book)
Ways of seeing organisations
are different ways of seeing organisations, for example:
- organisations are places where there is scarce resources
and as people/coalitions try and gain access to those scarce
resources there will inevitably be conflict
- organisations are places that exist to meet human needs and so a
good fit between an individual and the organisation is important -
conflict is a sign that things are not working as they should
own and others preferred ways of seeing organisations is helpful in
understanding the processes at work when people
are working in organisations. See:
Reframing Organisations, Bolman, Lee G and Deal, Terrence E. Jossey-Bass
Publishers, San Francisco, 1991.
Images of Organisation, Morgan, Gareth, 2nd Edition,
Sage London, 1997
Facilitation processes are often used in teams. It is useful to have
an understanding of team roles. See:
Roles at Work, R. Meredith Belbin, Butterworth
B. Frameworks for the task at hand
One also needs frameworks
for the task at hand. For example if the group is working on planning
one needs some planning frameworks; if the group
is working on evaluation one needs some evaluation frameworks. See the
menu on the left for planning and evaluation materials.